Week in Overview(16 Jan-23 Jan) – 2024
1. Agniane Stealer
Agniane Stealer is an advanced information stealer discovered by cybersecurity researchers. It operates as part of the Malware-as-a-Service (MaaS) platform, specifically linked to the Cinoshi Project. The stealer is adept at extracting sensitive data, including credentials, system information, and crypto-related details.
2. Trello Allegedly Breached
A cybercriminal known as ’emo’ claims to have breached Trello, offering a database of 15,115,516 user records for sale. The compromised data includes emails, usernames, full names, and other account information.
3. Cyber Kill Chain® and TeamCity Vulnerability Exploitation
Researchers identified a critical vulnerability (CVE-2023-42793) in TeamCity, a build management server. The exploit allows remote code execution, leading to active exploitation by threat actors. The FortiGuard Incident Response team conducted an investigation into a compromised US-based biomedical manufacturing organization.
4. The Confusing History of F5 BIG-IP RCE Vulnerabilities
F5 BIG-IP, a popular networking device, faced a series of Remote Code Execution (RCE) vulnerabilities, leading to confusion in the cybersecurity community. The incidents involved multiple vulnerabilities, each with its own set of challenges and mitigations.
5. Exploitation of Apache ActiveMQ Flaw (CVE-2023-46604)
A critical vulnerability (CVE-2023-46604) in Apache ActiveMQ was exploited to deliver the Godzilla web shell. The flaw allowed unauthorized remote code execution, enabling threat actors to compromise systems.
6. Outlook Exploit Leads to NTLM v2 Password Breach (CVE-2023-35636)
An Outlook exploit (CVE-2023-35636) resulted in a breach where NTLM v2 passwords were compromised. The vulnerability allowed threat actors to execute arbitrary code and extract sensitive information.
A critical vulnerability has been identified in Atlassian’s Confluence Server and Data Center, marked as CVE-2023-22527. This vulnerability allows unauthenticated attackers to inject OGNL expressions into a Confluence instance, leading to the execution of arbitrary code and system commands. The vulnerability affects older versions of Confluence Server and Data Center, and immediate action is required for affected instances.
Upon analyzing the CVE description provided by Atlassian, it was observed that version 8.5.5 completely eliminates the vulnerability. However, the vulnerability was initially rendered unexploitable in version 8.5.4. The analysis involved comparing changes between versions 8.5.3 and 8.5.4, focusing on files with OGNL-related modifications.
Identifying the Unauthenticated Attack Surface
Discovering that Confluence views could be accessed directly by hitting *.vm files, the research team looked for template files accepting parameters passed to potentially dangerous sinks. Notable files such as confluence/template/xhtml/pagelist.vm and confluence/template/aui/text-inline.vm were identified as potential attack vectors.
OGNL Expression Evaluation
After modifying the payload to bypass security restrictions, the research team successfully executed OGNL expressions, leading to code execution. A failed attempt triggered a security measure blocking expressions longer than ~200 characters, but a small payload adjustment utilizing the #parameters map allowed successful execution of system commands.
Atlassian has addressed this vulnerability in the most recent versions of Confluence Server and Data Center. Users are strongly advised to update their instances to version 8.5.5 or the latest supported version. The research team has also contributed a Nuclei template (https://github.com/projectdiscovery/nuclei-templates/pull/8982) to assist in detecting instances vulnerable to CVE-2023-22527.
This vulnerability, if exploited, allows unauthenticated attackers to achieve remote code execution on affected Confluence instances. The severity is classified as critical, with a CVSS score of 10.
RussianPanda, a cybersecurity researcher, recently shed light on Agniane Stealer, categorizing it as a copycat project emerging from the developer of #AgnianeStealer. The report highlights Agniane Stealer’s fraudulent activities, including credential theft, system information extraction, and session details hijacking from various applications. This stealer is specifically notable for its focus on cryptocurrency-related data, targeting extensions and wallets for illicit gains.
1. Malware-as-a-Service (MaaS) Platform Connection
RussianPanda suggests that Agniane Stealer is likely affiliated with the Cinoshi Project, a Malware-as-a-Service platform discovered in early 2023. The close association indicates that Agniane Stealer is available for sale on dark web forums, sharing infrastructure and code elements with the MaaS platform.
2. Stealing Capabilities
Agniane Stealer is an information stealer with diverse capabilities:
3. Evasion Techniques
Agniane Stealer employs various evasion methods to counter anti-analysis measures:
4. Availability and Promotion
The report uncovers a Telegram channel actively promoting and selling Agniane Stealer. The channel, possibly managed by the malware author, consistently posts updates, feature lists, and pricing details.
5. Pricing Information
The pricing details revealed in the report indicate subscription-based access to Agniane Stealer:
Implications and Recommendations
Given the evolving threat landscape associated with Agniane Stealer, the report suggests heightened vigilance and cybersecurity measures. It emphasizes the need for organizations and users to implement robust security practices, including regular system updates, anti-malware solutions, and user education to thwart potential threats associated with information stealers like Agniane Stealer.
In a recent cybersecurity development, the popular project management platform Trello has allegedly fallen victim to a data breach. The cybercriminal, self-identified as ’emo,’ purports to have compromised Trello’s security, obtaining a database containing 15,115,516 user records. The compromised data reportedly encompasses sensitive information, including emails, usernames, full names, and additional account details.
In September 2023, researchers from Sonar identified a critical vulnerability (CVE-2023-42793) in TeamCity On-Premises, a build management and continuous integration server developed by JetBrains. This vulnerability, with a high CVE score of 9.8, allows for remote code execution without authentication. Rapid7 released a public exploit for this vulnerability on September 27, 2023. The exploit gained notoriety as it was actively exploited in the wild, prompting its inclusion in CISA’s ‘Known Exploited Vulnerabilities Catalog’ on October 4, 2023.
In mid-October 2023, FortiGuard Incident Response (IR) discovered an intrusion into a US-based biomedical manufacturing organization, resulting from the TeamCity vulnerability. This article details the investigation conducted by the FortiGuard IR team, encompassing containment, eradication, and remediation efforts.
Summary of Attack
The victim organization fell prey to the CVE-2023-42793 exploit, leading to a compromise by threat actors, later identified as APT29. highlights key events from the initial discovery of the vulnerability to the containment and remediation efforts.
The FortiGuard IR team initiated the investigation by examining EDR events on the victim’s Windows application server (HOST_1_TEAMCITY). Despite the victim having recently updated TeamCity to a non-vulnerable version, evidence of successful exploitation surfaced in the application logs.
The teamcity-auth.log file revealed authentication bypass attempts. Further analysis of the teamcity-server.log file exposed remote code execution evidence, providing insight into the commands executed through exploitation.
Commands executed by multiple threat actors were diverse, indicating simultaneous operations. Notably, some threat actors attempted Linux commands on a Windows server, suggesting varied levels of success.
Remote IP AddressCommands Executed
Command line: whoami
Command line: bash -c “nproc 2>&1”
Command line: cmd.exe “/c whoami”
Several commands aligned with the use of the Nuclei vulnerability scanner, identified by a corresponding yaml template (CVE-2023-42793.yaml). This template produced echo commands on exploited TeamCity servers, mirroring observed commands in the logs. Correlating logs showcased multiple echo commands indicative of Nuclei scanning .
Main Threat Actor Intrusion
The main threat actor, distinguishable from others, employed Nuclei for identification before executing discovery commands. Following successful exploitation, the actor attempted to download a DLL file, ‘AclNumsInvertHost.dll,’ and create a scheduled task for persistence. The scheduled task, named “\Microsoft\Windows\DefenderUPDService,” referenced the downloaded DLL file.
The main threat actor displayed a sophisticated modus operandi, utilizing the TeamCity vulnerability for initial access, conducting reconnaissance, and establishing persistence.
Security researchers from Trustwave have observed a significant increase in attacks exploiting a now-patched vulnerability (CVE-2023-46604) in Apache ActiveMQ. Threat actors leverage this flaw to deliver the Godzilla web shell, allowing them to gain unauthorized access and control over targeted systems. The attackers hide the web shell within an unknown binary format to evade security and signature-based scanners successfully.
CVE-2023-46604 and Apache ActiveMQ
CVE-2023-46604 is a critical remote code execution vulnerability affecting Apache ActiveMQ, an open-source message broker software used for message-oriented middleware (MOM) purposes. The flaw allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary shell commands by manipulating serialized class types in the OpenWire protocol.
Apache ActiveMQ versions affected by this vulnerability include:
The flaw was addressed by Apache with the release of new ActiveMQ versions on October 25, 2023.
In observed attacks, the malicious file was planted in the “admin” folder within the ActiveMQ installation directory. This folder contains server scripts for the ActiveMQ administrative and web management console. Notably, the Jetty JSP engine, integrated into ActiveMQ, parsed, compiled, and executed the embedded Java code encapsulated in the unknown binary.
Once deployed, the Godzilla web shell provides threat actors with complete control over the compromised system, allowing for various malicious activities, including viewing network details, conducting port scans, executing Mimikatz commands, running Meterpreter commands, executing shell commands, remotely managing SQL databases, and handling file management tasks.
To mitigate the risks associated with CVE-2023-46604 and potential Godzilla web shell attacks:
A significant security vulnerability has been identified in Microsoft Outlook, marked as CVE-2023-35636, which exposes NTLM v2 hashed passwords during the calendar sharing function. This vulnerability allows attackers to intercept sensitive information, potentially leading to unauthorized access to systems and user data.
CVE-2023-35636 and NTLM v2
CVE-2023-35636 is a critical security vulnerability found in Microsoft Outlook, specifically within the calendar sharing functionality. Exploiting this vulnerability allows attackers to intercept NTLM v2 hashed passwords, which are crucial for authentication in Microsoft Windows systems. Despite NTLM v2 being more secure than its predecessor, it remains susceptible to offline brute-force and authentication relay attacks.
Attackers can leverage the obtained NTLM v2 hashes in two primary scenarios:
The Outlook exploit involves adding specific headers to an email, directing Outlook to share content and contact a designated machine. By manipulating these headers (“Content-Class” and “x-sharing-config-url”), attackers create an opportunity to intercept NTLM v2 hashes during the authentication process.
Other Attack Vectors
Apart from Outlook, attackers can exploit Windows Performance Analyzer (WPA) and Windows File Explorer to access NTLM v2 hashes. These attacks involve tricking applications into revealing sensitive information through URI handlers and specific parameters.
Microsoft has released a patch on December 12, 2023, addressing the Outlook vulnerability (CVE-2023-35636), categorizing it as “important.” However, vulnerabilities associated with WPA and Windows File Explorer are considered of “moderate severity” by Microsoft.
To safeguard systems from NTLM v2 attacks:
GreyNoise Labs’ Ron Bowes provides a comprehensive overview of F5 BIG-IP Remote Code Execution (RCE) vulnerabilities that have emerged since 2020. The report aims to clarify the distinct vulnerabilities and their implications when encountered in logs.
1. CVE-2021-22986: Authentication Bypass via SSRF
2. CVE-2022-1388: Auth Bypass via Header Smuggling
3. CVE-2021-23015: Post-authentication RCE via Command Injection
4. CVE-2022-41800: Post-authentication RCE via .rpmspec Injection
5. Post-authentication RCE via /mgmt/tm/util/bash
Notable Observations and Challenges